Metal stamping process you should have heard of more or less, it has become an important part of the process in the parts manufacturing industry, most of the stamping hardware is used in aerospace, automotive, shipping, machinery, chemical, and other fields, in the use of metal products, the vast majority will be applied to this basic process. So if you want to customize products that involve metal materials, you should know more about the basics of this process, This article introduces metal stamping’s definition, process, types, materials, and application.
What is Metal Stamping?
Metal stamping is a manufacturing process that uses a metal stamping die or a series of metal stamping dies to shape a metal sheet into a three-dimensional dimensional workpiece.
What are The Types of Metal Stamping?
There are six common types of metal stamping processes, which are perforation, blanking, stretching, forging, piercing, and embossing. The type of stamping process used depends on the desired shape and is tailored to specific design requirements in various industries such as consumer goods, aerospace, electronics, telecommunications, and automotive manufacturing. These cold-forming processes involve the use of different types of molds, machinery, and other tools to achieve the desired appearance.
Perforation is one of the most fundamental forms of metal stamping. In this method, sheet metal is securely placed on a worktable. Processing tools are used to punch holes in the metal sheet, creating multiple small hollow areas. Unlike other techniques, the punched material generated throughout the entire processing process will be discarded and will not be used later.
Blanking is similar to piercing, but the punched piece is considered a finished product rather than waste material. This is an ideal process for processing small to medium-sized metals cut from large metal sheets, creating high-precision metal cutting.
Stretching is a process whereby a machine fixes the ends of the metal sheet together, and a die with a certain shape or cross-section is placed beneath the sheet. The punching machine generates high-impact force to push the metal sheet onto the die, effectively deforming it to match the die’s cross-section. Stretching can further be divided into shallow and deep stretching.
Forging, as the name suggests, is a metal stamping technique that shapes a small piece of metal into the shape and features of a coin. It is a closed die forging technique, where the entire or a part of the metal sample is stamped by two dies that come close to each other on both sides of the metal.
One advantage of forging is that it can produce metal products with high tolerances. It is also a simple process that can effectively produce permanent deformation on the product, increasing its resistance to impact and other physical wear and tear.
Unlike perforation and blanking, piercing is a metal stamping technique that does not remove metal parts. Instead, the molds and punches work together to create a crack on the metal sheet. This process does not generate scrap metal, which must be discarded or removed in post-processing.
Embossing is a technique that creates unique raised surfaces on a metal sheet. Embossed materials can be produced in two ways, by using machines or die sets. Due to the complexity of the designs it can form, embossing can be used in many applications. Some major examples include car hoods, door frames, metal cladding, panels, engine casings, diamond steel plates, and more.
While steel and various types of metals can be embossed, aluminum is the most popular choice as it has high workability. It is also a lightweight and durable material that combines well with the benefits of embossing.
The choice of surface processing method for workpieces is to select a reasonable set of methods for every quality-requiring surface of the part. According to the main basic processes of stamping, there are several basic processes such as blanking, punching, bending, and drawing. Generally, the final processing method is first selected according to the accuracy and roughness requirements of the surface, and then the pre-fine preparation process is determined.
This video describes the different types of metal stamping processes in more detail.
Materials Used In Metal Stamping
The materials used for stamping should not only meet the technical requirements of the design but also the requirements of the stamping process and subsequent processes. Common metal stamping materials include low-titaniumalloys,carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, and their alloys.
Copper / Luminum / Their Alloys
Copper, aluminum, and their alloys are often used in stamping processes as components of equipment due to their good ductility and excellent conductivity.
Carbon Steel / Stainless Steel
Carbon steel and stainless steel stamping processes are often used to manufacture equipment housings, structural components, and casings. However, due to their strong rigidity, stamping oil is often used to improve the process.
Titanium alloy stamping is mainly used for parts of large equipment, aircraft, ships, and other products that require high strength and low weight. Due to the high difficulty of the process, special stampingoilsmust be used to improve the process.
Pros of Metal Stamping:
– High Stability
Metal stamping has relatively stable processing performanceand goodinterchangeability.
– Simple Operation
The operation is relatively simple and easy to organize production, especially in the case of mass production. High-speed presses can produce hundreds or thousands of pieces per minute, makingtheman efficient processing method.
– Ability to Manufacture Complex Components
Due to the use of molds, parts with thin walls, lightweight, good rigidity, high surface quality, and complex shapes can be obtained, which cannot be or are difficult tomanufactureby other processing methods.
– Energy-saving and Material-saving
Metal stamping parts have high material utilization. Stamping processing generally does not require heating of the blank, nor does it cut metal like cutting processing, so it not only saves energy but also saves metal.
– High Precision
Metal stamping parts can achieve high dimensional accuracy, especially in some advanced stamping plants where the processing accuracy is controlled very highly.
Cons of Metal Stamping:
– Long Mold Manufacturing Cycle
The mold manufacturing cycle is relatively long and the cost is relatively high. Therefore, it is limited in small batch production.
– Production Operations Can Easily Cause Accidents
Currently, many companies in China that manufacture metal stamping parts do not have basic automated production equipment and are mostly in a manual operating state. Stamping equipment has a fast travel speed, monotonous and frequent operations, high noise and vibration, and long-term operation can easily cause mental fatigue and uncoordinated movements, which can lead to personal injury accidents.
Cost Components of Metal Stamping Process & How to Reduce?
When using metal stamping processes in product development, it is important to understand the cost components of metal stamping manufacturers when calculating costs. Based on our years of experience in cooperation with metal stamping manufacturers at Ruizhi Sourcing, the cost components of metal stamping are as follows:
1. Material cost
- Production raw materials
- Auxiliary materials
- Scrap rate
2. Labor cost
- Production workers’ wages
- Auxiliary workers; including air compressor operators, crane operators, forklift operators, inspectors, warehouse workers, etc.
- Adjustmentworkers’ andmold repair workers’ wages
- Wage surcharges
3. Diecosts(including manufacturing and maintenance costs)
4. Depreciation and maintenance costs of equipment, production workshop, and warehouse
5. Power cost
6. Managementcosts;including technical personnel wages, management personnel wages, office expenses, labor protection, employee benefits, bonuses, etc.
7. Capital cost
8. Packaging and transportation costs
9. Other costs
To reduce the cost of metal stamping, the following measures can be taken:
1. Choose A Good Stamping Process
A well-established stamping process can ensure fewer malfunctions and waste in the production process and greatly improve product output.
2. Good Stamping Dies
The quality of the stamping die directly affects the cost of metal stamping, especiallyinmass production.
3. Adopt Automated Production
Nowadays, the cost of metal stamping parts, especially for small electronic stamping parts, is mainly the cost of labor. Therefore, stamping automation is becoming an inevitable trend.
4. Use Continuous Molds
Adopting continuous stamping molds is necessary for stamping automation. Even for manual stamping, simple continuous molds should be considered for some products.
5. Use Materials Rationally
For products with low requirements, fully utilize the scraps for production. For products with high requirements, fully utilize materials in the design process to reduce waste.
Areas of Application for Metal Stamping Processes
Metal stamping parts have a wide range of applications. As long as the product involves metal materials and is based on the unique advantages of metal processing accuracy and low cost, the metal stamping process is likely to be used. Industries that use metal stamping include (but are not limited to):
- Industrial machinery
- Consumer electronics
Common Issues Involved in Metal Stamping Processes
1. Generation of stamping waste
– Poor quality of raw materials;
– Improper installation, adjustment, and use of stamping dies;
– The operator did not correctly feed the strip material along the positioning feed or did not ensure that the strip material was fed with a certain gap;
– The gap of the stamping die changed due to long-term use, or the working parts and guiding parts of the die were worn;
– Due to prolonged impact and vibration, the fastening parts of the stamping die became loose, causing relative positional changes in the die’s various mounting positions;
– The operator neglected to follow the operating procedures.
2. Burr formation on stamped parts
– The stamping clearance is too large, too small, or uneven;
– The working part of the stamping die becomes dull;
– Due to prolonged vibration and shock, the centerline of the male and female dies changes, and the axis does not overlap, causing single-sided burrs.
3. Warping deformation of stamped parts
Reason: The force of the gap and reaction force does not actinthe same line, producing a moment. (Warping deformation occurs when the clearance between the male and female dies is too large, the concave die edge has a reverse taper, or the contact area between the ejector and the workpiece is too small).
4. When the part bends, the size and shape are not qualified
– The material’s rebound causes the product to be unqualified;
– The locator undergoes wear and deformation, causing the strip material to be misplaced, and a new locator must be replaced;
– In an unguided bending die, improper adjustment of the dead point position of the press slider during an adjustment can also cause the shape and size of the bent part to be unqualified;
– The pressing device of the mold fails or does not press the material at all, and the pressing force must be adjusted or the pressure spring replaced to make it work normally.
There are many other common problems in the metal stamping process, which are not listed one by one. If you encounter some problems that you cannot solve in metal stamping, you can contact us. Our many years of expertise and experience can help you solve them.